Directory

Brent M. Haddad
  • Title
    • Professor of Environmental Studies
  • Division Social Sciences Division
  • Department
    • Environmental Studies Department
  • Phone
    831-331-0654 (cell)
  • Email
  • Fax
    831-459-4015
  • Website
  • Office Location
    • Nat Sci 2 Main Building, 493
  • Office Hours Mondays 9-11
  • Mail Stop Environmental Studies
  • Mailing Address
    • 1156 High Street/ENVS
    • Santa Cruz CA 95064
  • Faculty Areas of Expertise Water Policy and Management, Renewable Energy, Environmental Policy, Sustainability
  • Courses ENVS 165: Sustainable Water Systems, ENVS 65: Introduction to Fresh Water, CSP 242: Policy Analysis
  • Advisees, Grad Students, Researchers Allison Skidmore

Summary of Expertise

  • Fresh Water Policy and Management
  • Renewable Energy Policy

Research Interests

  • Integrated Water Management
  • Regional Water Management
  • Water and Energy Policy
  • Political Economy
  • Renewable Energy

Biography, Education and Training

  • PhD, Energy and Resources, UC Berkeley, 1996
  • MBA, Haas School of Business, UC Berkeley, 1991
  • MA, Georgetown University, 1985
  • BA, Stanford University, 1982

Honors, Awards and Grants

  • Numerous research grants
  • Numerous teaching awards

Selected Publications

      Books   * B1 2014   Flower, R., and Haddad, B.  Reawakening the Public Research University. University of California eScholarship online publication. * B2 2012   Committee on the Assessment of Water Reuse as an Approach for Meeting Future Water Supply Needs.  Water Reuse: Potential for Expanding the Nation's Water Supply Through Reuse of Municipal Wastewater.  Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. PEER REVIEWED     2000   Haddad, B., Rivers of Gold: Designing Markets to Allocate Water in California. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. PEER REVIEWED     1999   Nogee, A., S. Clemmer, B. Paulos, and B. Haddad. Powerful Solutions: Seven Ways to Switch America to Renewable Electricity. Boston, Mass.: Union of Concerned Scientists.

 

      Contributions to Books   * BC1 New 2018   Book Chapter: Haddad, B., Heck, N., Paytan, A., and Potts, D. Social issues and public acceptance of seawater desalination plants, chapter in Sustainable Desalination Handbook – Process Design and Implementation Strategies. Elsevier. INVITED * BC2 2012   Book Chapter: Haddad, B. “Governance” in Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources, Gale/Cengage Learning PEER REVIEWED * BC3 2012   Book Chapter: Haddad, B. “Market Mechanisms” in Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources,  Gale/Cengage Learning. PEER REVIEWED * BC4 2012   Haddad, B. “Property Law,” in Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources, Gale/Cengage Learning [refereed]. PEER REVIEWED * BC5 2012   Article: "Water (Overview)"  Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability, Vol 4, pp. 479-483. INVITED * BC6 2008   Book Chapter: Haddad, B. “Green Business,” in Callicott, J. B., and Frodeman, R. (eds.) Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy. MacMillan Reference USA, Pgs. 468-470. PEER REVIEWED * BC7 2007   Book Chapter: Haddad, B., “The Professional and Intellectual Challenges of Sustainable Water Management," in N. Afgan, Z. Bogdan, N. Duic, & Z. Guzovic, eds., Proceedings of the 3rd Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, 2005. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing. * BC8 2007   Book Chapter: Haddad, B. “Ranking the adaptive capacity of nations to climate change when socio-political goals are explicit,’ Advances in Ecological Economics, Jon D. Erickson and John Gowdy (eds.).  Edward Elgar Press. PEER REVIEWED * BC9 2006   Book Chapter: Haddad, B. and R. Howarth. “Protest Bids, Commensurability, and Substitution: Contingent Valuation and Ecological Economics,” Ch. 6 in A. Alberini and J. Kahn (eds.), Handbook on Contingent Valuation, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Press.     2004   Book Chapter: Haddad, B., “Water," in S. Krech III, J.R. McNeill, and C. Merchant, eds., Encyclopedia of Environmental History. Volume 3, 1299-1303. PEER REVIEWED     2004   Book Chapter: Howarth, R., Haddad, B. and Paton, B. “Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Correcting Market Failures Using Public Voluntary Programmes,” pp. 189-206, in A. Baranzini and P. Thalmann (eds.), Voluntary Approaches in Climate Policy, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. PEER REVIEWED     2002   Book Chapter: Haddad, B. “Monterey County Water Recycling Project: An Institutional Study,” Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management 28(4): 280-287. PEER REVIEWED     2001   Book Chapter: Haddad, B., and Merritt, K., “Evaluating regional impacts and adaptations to climate change: the case of California water," in D. Hall and R.B. Howarth, eds., The Long-Term Economics of Climate Change: Beyond a Doubling of Greenhouse Gas Concentrations. New York: JAI Press. PEER REVIEWED     1994   Book Chapter: Haddad, B., J. Palmisano, and C. Neves, “Marketable Permits and Pollution Charges: Two Case Studies,” pp. 21-112 in The Environment Goes to Market: The Implementation of Economic Incentives for Pollution Control. J. Palmisano, Project Director, Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Public Administration. PEER REVIEWED     1992   Book Chapter: Wilson, J.S. and B. Haddad, “Technology Transfer: Selected Case Studies,” pp. 141-178 in the Appendix to The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance.  Washington: National Academy Press.

 

      Journal Articles   * JA1 New 2019   Article: Sheikh, B., Nelson, K., Thebo, A., and Haddad, B. Grey Water: Agricultural Use of Reclaimed Water in California. Journal of Contemporary Water Research and Education 165(1). PEER REVIEWED * JA4 New 2018   Article: Heck, N., Petersen, K., Potts, D., Haddad, B., and Paytan, A. (2018) Predictors of coastal stakeholders' knowledge about seawater desalination impacts on marine ecosystems. Science of the Total Environment 639: 785-792. PEER REVIEWED * JA5 New 2018   Article: Heck, N., Paytan, A., Potts, D., Haddad, B., and Petersen, K. Management preferences and attitudes regarding environmental impacts from seawater desalination: insights from a small coastal community. Ocean and Coastal Management 163(2018) 22-29. PEER REVIEWED * JA6 New 2017   Article: Heck, N., Paytan, A., Potts, D., Haddad, B., and Petersen, K. Management Priorities for seawater desalination plants in a marine protected area: A multi-criteria analysis. Marine Policy 86(2017) 64-71. PEER REVIEWED * JA7 New 2016   Article: Heck, N., Paytan, A., Potts, D.C., and Haddad. B. (2016) Predictors of local support for a seawater desalination plant in a small coastal community, Environmental Science and Policy 66: 101-111. PEER REVIEWED * JA8 New 2016   Article: Heck, N., Paytan, A., Potts, D.C., and Haddad, B. (2016) Coastal residents’ literacy about seawater desalination and its impacts on marine ecosystems in California, Marine Policy 68: 178-186. PEER REVIEWED * JA9 2015   Article: Rozin, P., Haddad, B., Nemeroff, C., and Slovic, P. Psychological aspects of the rejection of recycled water: contamination, purification and disgust. Judgment and Decision Making 10(1) January 50-63. PEER REVIEWED * JA10 2013   Article: Haddad, B. A case for an ecological-economic research program for desalination.  Desalination 324, Sept. 2, 72-78. PEER REVIEWED * JA11 2013   Article: Kidson, R., Haddad, B., Zheng, H., Kasower, S., and Raucher, R. Optimizing reliability: Portfolio modeling of contract types for retail water providers. Water Resources Management 27(9), 3209-3225. PEER REVIEWED * JA12 2009   Article: Kidson, R., Haddad, B., and Zheng, H. Improving Water Supply through Portfolio Management: Case Study from Southern California. Proceedings, 4th WEAS International Conference in Water Resources, Hydrology and Hydraulics, University of Cambridge, 24-26 February 2009. * JA13 2007   Article: Brunkard J.M., Robles J.L., Ramirez J.,  Cifuentes E., Rothenberg S.J., Hunsperger E.N., Moore C.G., Brussolo R.M., Villarreal N.A., and Haddad B.M. Dengue Fever Seroprevalence and Risk Factors, Texas-Mexico Border, 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases 13(10):1477-1483. PEER REVIEWED * JA14 2007   Article: Tongsopit, S., and Haddad, B. “Decentralized and Centralized Energy: A Property Rights Analysis,” International Journal of Global Energy Issues Vol. 27(3):323-338. PEER REVIEWED     2006   Abstract, International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases (ICEID). "Dengue prevalence on the Texas-Mexico border: an analysis of risk factors." Brunkard J.M., Robles J.L., Ramirez J., Cifuentes E., Rothenberg S.J., Hunsperger E.N., Moore C.G., Brussolo R.M., Villarreal N.A., and Haddad B.M., Atlanta, GA, March 2006 , pp.113-114.     2006   Haddad, B. “Achieving Numerous Watershed-Management Goals in a Multi-Watershed System,” extended abstract in Proceedings, International Conference on Forest and Water in a Changing Environment (Beijing, August 8-10).     2006   Article: Buckley, M., and B. Haddad. “Socially Strategic Ecological Restoration: A Game-Theoretic Analysis,” Environmental Management. 38(1): 48-61. PEER REVIEWED     2005   Haddad, B. “Ranking the adaptive capacity of nations to climate change when socio-political goals are explicit.” Global Environmental Change A 15: 165-76. PEER REVIEWED     2004   Huxman, T.E., M. Smith, P. Fay, A.K. Knapp, M.R. Shaw, M.E. Loik, S.D. Smith, D.T. Tissue, J.C. Zak, J.F. Weltzin, W.T. Pockman, O.E. Sala, B. Haddad, J. Harte, G.W. Koch, S. Schwinning, E.E. Small, D.G. Williams, “Convergence across biomes to a common rain-use efficiency," Nature 429: 651-654. PEER REVIEWED     2004   Haddad, B., “New Ways to Understand Water Customers’ ‘Irrational’ Behavior," WateReuse Update (June).     2004   Haddad, B., “Research Needs Assessment Workshop: Human Reactions to Water Reuse," Alexandria, VA: WateReuse Foundation     2003   Weltzin, J.F., M.E. Loik, S. Schwinning, D.G. Williams, P. Fay, B. Haddad and in alphabetical order: J. Harte, T.E. Huxman, A.K. Knapp, G. Lin, W.T. Pockman, M.R. Shaw, E.E. Small, M.D. Smith, D.T. Tissue, J.C. Zak, “Assessing the response of terrestrial ecosystems to potential changes in precipitation," BioScience 53(10): 941-952. PEER REVIEWED     2003   Haddad, B., Sloan, L., Snyder, M., and Bell, J., “Regional climate change impacts and freshwater systems: focusing the adaptation research agenda," International Journal of Sustainable Development 6(3): 265-282. PEER REVIEWED     2003   Haddad, B. “Property rights, ecosystem management, and John Locke’s labor theory of ownership,” Ecological Economics 46(1):19-31. PEER REVIEWED     2003   Haddad, B. and D. Kelso. “Understanding the Public Reaction to Indirect Potable Reuse Projects,” Proceedings, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Workshop on Water Reuse, Atlanta, GA.     2002   Haddad, B., “Monterey County Water Recycling Project: An Institutional Study," Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management 28(4): 280-287.     2002   Haddad, B. “The Role of the Private Sector in Fresh Water Supply: Contracting and Public Benefits Considerations.” Proceedings, Institute of the Americas H2O Conference, April 24, San Diego, CA.     2002   Haddad, B. and J. Palmisano. “GHG Markets are Evolving: Implications for Regulators and Emission Traders.” Joint Implementation Quarterly 8(2): 8.     2001   Haddad, B. and J. Palmisano. “Market Darwinism vs. Market Creationism: Adaptability and Fairness in the Design of Greenhouse Gas Trading Mechanisms.” International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law, and Economics 1(4): 427-446. PEER REVIEWED     2001   Ludwig, D., Mangel, M. and Haddad, B. “Ecology, Conservation, and Public Policy,” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 32: 481-517. PEER REVIEWED     2001   Haddad, B., L. Sloan, J. Bell, and M. Snyder. “Regional Climate Modeling and Water Forecasting at the District Level,” Proceedings, Annual meeting of the American Water Resources Association, Albuquerque, NM.     2001   Haddad, B. “The Challenge of Large-Scale Water Reallocation: Lessons from the California Experience,” Proceedings, International Conference on the Spanish Hydrological Plan and Sustainable Water Management, Zaragoza, Spain.     2000   Haddad, B., “Reply to Discussion: Economic Incentives for Water Conservation on the Monterey Peninsula: The Market Proposal," Journal of the American Water Resources Association August.     2000   Haddad, B., “Economic Incentives for Water Conservation on the Monterey Peninsula: the Market Proposal," Journal of the American Water Resources Association 36(1): 1-15. PEER REVIEWED     2000   Haddad, B. “Reply to Discussion: Economic Incentives for Water Conservation on the Monterey Peninsula: The Market Proposal,” Journal of the American Water Resources Association, August.     2000   Howarth, R., B. Haddad, and B. Paton. “The Economics of Energy Efficiency: Insights from Voluntary Participation Programs,” Energy Policy 28: 477-486. PEER REVIEWED     1999   Haddad, B., J. Brunkard, and K. Mueller. “Farmer Incentives to Utilize Urban Recycled Water in California: Report on a Survey,” Proceedings of the Annual Symposium of the WateReuse Association, Long Beach, Ca., July.     1999   Haddad, B. and P. Jefferiss. “Forging Consensus on National Renewables Policy: The Renewables Portfolio Standard and the National Public Benefits Trust Fund,” Electricity Journal (March), 68-80.     1997   Haddad, B. “Putting Markets to Work: The Design and Use of Marketable Permits and Obligations,” Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Occasional Paper #19, 48pp. PEER REVIEWED     1997   Martinot, E., J. Sinton, and B. Haddad, “International Technology Transfer for Climate Change Mitigation and the Cases of Russia and China.” Annual Review of Energy, Vol. 22, pp. 357-401. PEER REVIEWED     1996   Haddad, B. “The Economic Underpinnings of Efforts to Create Water Markets in California: Why the Well is Still Dry,” Oakland, Ca.: Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security, Working Paper 96-03.     1994   Haddad, B. “Why Compact Fluorescent Lamps Are Not Ubiquitous: Industrial Organization, Incentives, and Social Convention,” Conference Proceedings, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. August. PEER REVIEWED     1992   Palmisano, J. and B. Haddad, “The USSR’s Experience with Economic Incentive Approaches to Pollution Control,” Comparative Economic Studies, Vol. 34, No. 2 (Summer), pp. 50-62. PEER REVIEWED     1988   Haddad, B., R. Howarth., and B. Paton. “Energy Efficiency and the Theory of the Firm,” Conference Proceedings, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Asilomar, Ca. August. PEER REVIEWED

 

      Critical Reviews Written for Others   * CR1 2008   Book Review: Owens Valley Revisited: A Reassessment of the West’s First Great Water Transfer, by Gary D. Libecap (Stanford University Press, 2007), Land Economics 84(2): 358-359.     2000   Book Review: Resource Economics, by Jon M. Conrad (Cambridge University Press, 1999), Journal of the American Water Resources Association (June).     1994   Book Review: Institutional Incentives and Sustainable Development: Infrastructure Policies in Perspective, by Ostrom, E., L. Schroeder, and S. Wynne (Boulder, Co.: Westview, 1993), Society and Natural Resources 7: 506-8.

 

      Papers in Conference Proceedings   * CP1 New 2018   Article: Haddad, B. "Defining the Field of Ecological Economics," presented at the biennial meeting of the International Society of Ecological Economics (September 10-12) Puebla, Mexico. * CP2 2015   Kidson, R.L., N.M. Taylor, B.M. Haddad, K.J. Langford, A.J.M. Kuss, and M.C. Peel. Long-run persistence in reservoir inflows: empirical mode decomposition in Sydney and Melbourne.  Ozwater 2015, Adelaide. PEER REVIEWED * CP3 2015   Article: Fiack, D., Mamula, A., Speir, C., and Haddad, B. Oil Production and Water Quality: An Econometric Evaluation of Hydraulic Fracturing.  Western Regional Science Association Conference, February, Tucson, AZ, 48 pp. * CP4 2010   Gormley, S., Hammoudeh, M., Shaw, H., Richardson, J., Delzeit, L., Flynn, M., Haddad, B., Herron, J. Forward Osmosis for Application in Sustainable Energy Development, Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Bartolomeo, Spain, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. * CP5 2009   Kidson, R., Haddad, B., and Zheng, H.  Risk Profiles for Water Supplies with Diversified Sources. Proceedings, OzWater ’09 Conference, Melbourne, Australia, 16-18 March 2009. * CP6 2007   Haddad, B. “The Professional and Intellectual Challenges of Sustainable Water Management,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water, and Environment Systems. N. Afgan, Z. Bogdan, N Duic, and Z. Guzovic (eds.), Singapore: World Scientific Publishing. PEER REVIEWED     2006   Haddad, B., “Achieving Numerous Watershed-Management Goals in a Multi-Watershed System," Proceedings, International Conference on Forest and Water in a Changing Environment (Beijing, August 8-10). Extended abstract.     2003   Haddad, B. and D. Kelso, “Understanding the Public Reaction to Indirect Potable Reuse Projects," Proceedings, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Workshop on Water Reuse, Atlanta, GA.     2002   Haddad, B., “The Role of the Private Sector in Fresh Water Supply: Contracting and Public Benefits Considerations," Proceedings, Institute of the Americas H2O Conference, April 24, San Diego, CA.     2001   Haddad, B., L. Sloan, J. Bell, and M. Snyder, “Regional Climate Modeling and Water Forecasting at the District Level," Proceedings, Annual meeting of the American Water Resources Association, Albuquerque, NM.     2001   Haddad, B., “The Challenge of Large-Scale Water Reallocation: Lessons from the California Experience," Proceedings, International Conference on the Spanish Hydrological Plan and Sustainable Water Management, Zaragoza, Spain.

 

      Other Publications   * OP1 New 2019   Monograph: Sheikh, B., Nelson, K., Thebo, A., Haddad, B., Gardner, T., Kelly, J., Adin, A., Tsuchihashi, R., Spurlock, S., and Funamizu, N. Agricultural Use of Recycled Water: Impediments and Incentives.  Final Report.  Alexandria, VA: Water Environment & Reuse Foundation. PEER REVIEWED * OP2 New 2018   Haddad, B., and Pratt, B. "Technical Memorandum: Estimating Benefits of the Pure Water Soquel Project." Prepared for the Soquel Creek Water District. Submitted August 13, 2018. * OP3 New 2017   Encyclopedia Entry: The Economics of Watershed Management.  Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Sciences. INVITED * OP4 New 2017   Technical Completion Report: Haddad, B., Speir, C., Mamula, A., Fiack, D., and Levine, A. Hydraulic fracturing and water resources in California: Evaluating the emerging regulatory framework.  Prepared for UCANR California Institute for Water Resources. INVITED * OP5 2012   Report: Haddad, B. Final Report of the Proposition 50 Project: Developing a Tool to Guide State and Local Desalination Planning: A Comprehensive Economic and Environmental Framework to Fully Assess the Benefits and Costs of Desalination.  Submitted to California Department of Water Resources. * OP6 2012   Catalog: Co-Principal Investigator (with Robert Raucher, Ph.D.), Desalination Planning Issues Matrix.  Lays out all major environmental, technological, financial, and policy issues related to the integration of desalinated water into coastal and inland water supply systems, including citations. * OP7 2012   Website: City of Long Beach Water Department.  Desalination Research Program Archives.  Annotations by Brent M. Haddad. * OP8 2012   Article: Haddad, B.  The Psychology of Water Reclamation and Reuse: Survey Findings and Research Roadmap.  USEPA 2012 Guidelines for Water Reuse EPA/600/R-12/618 (September), D22-23. INVITED * OP9 2011   Monograph: Griggs, G, and Haddad, B.  City of Santa Cruz Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment. Prepared for the City of Santa Cruz Climate Adaptation Plan. * OP10 2011   Report: Haddad, B.  An Ecological-Economic Research Program for Desalination, a deliverable of the Proposition 50 Project: Developing a Tool to Guide State and Local Desalination Planning: A Comprehensive Economic and Environmental Framework to Fully Assess the Benefits and Costs of Desalination.  California Department of Water Resources * OP11 2010   Foundation Report: Haddad, B., Rozin, P., Slovic, P., Nemeroff, C., The Psychology of Water Reclamation and Reuse: Survey Findings and Research Roadmap, Arlington, VA, WateReuse Research Foundation PEER REVIEWED * OP12 2010   Haddad, B.  Regional Approaches and Advantages for Implementing Desal Projects, Appendix H in Raucher, R., et al., Guidelines for Implementing Seawater and Brackish Water Desalination Facilities.  Water Research Foundation Project #4078.  pp. 274-314 INVITED * OP13 2010   Article: Kidson, R. and Haddad, B. Water Stewardship: An Australian Perspective.  Box 8 in Power, M., and Chapin, S. Planetary Stewardship.  Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America  91:143-75. * OP14 2007   Haddad, B., Introduction to Environmental Politics and Economics: Course Book. Mason, OH: Thompson. * OP15 2007   Conference Summary Report: Alpert, H., Borrowman, C., and Haddad, B. Evaluating Environmental Impacts of Desalination in California.  Report on the First Workshop of the Proposition 50 Project: Developing a Tool to Guide State and Local Desalination Planning: A Comprehensive Economic and Environmental Framework to Fully Assess the Benefits and Costs of Desalination.  Conference held in Santa Cruz, September 25-26, 2006. * OP16 2007   Website: Haddad, B., Alpert, H.,  Borrowman, C., and Ory, J.  Online Annotated Bibliography of Desalination.  A searchable, annotated bibliography of research papers.      2006   Newspaper Article: Haddad, B. “Less negativity and more comity for UCSC, city,” Santa Cruz Sentinel, Opinion, June 18, A-16.     2005   Newspaper Article: Haddad, B., and De Lay, J. “Clean the Bay, It’s Best for Everyone,” Monterey County Herald.  Guest Commentary. (May 8)     2002   Newspaper Article: Haddad, B. and C. Brown. “Commentary: Drop bid to revive the dying Salton Sea,” Los Angeles Times, July 14, M.5.     2001   Newspaper Article: Haddad, B. “’Ring’ in the profits, but at what cost?” Santa Cruz Sentinel, Dec. 28.     1998   Newspaper Article: Haddad, B. “Pursuing excellence in interdisciplinary teaching,” Faculty Focus 5(1) 13-15.     1998   Newspaper Article: Haddad, B. “Solving transportation woes requires a new approach,” Santa Cruz Sentinel op-ed page, September 20.     1997   Newspaper Article: Haddad, B., and M. DeLapa. “A Fair Use-Management (FUM) model would give us ample reason to conserve,” Coast Weekly, August 7.     1997   Newspaper Article: Haddad, B. and M. DeLapa. “A less expensive answer to area’s water shortage,” The Monterey County Herald, August 13.     1996   Newspaper Article: Haddad, B. “This game plan lets the best energy competitors win,” The Monterey County Herald, August 18.     1993   Newspaper Article: Haddad, B. “Seeking Alternatives to Economics-based Social Planning,” ERG News, U.C. Berkeley Energy and Resources Group 3:3. November.

 

      Film  

 

* F1 2011   "Solitude" - a demonstration film for a Fall 2011 course in which I worked with 5 Film majors to produce thematic films about water.  The course fulfilled their senior exit requirements.

Teaching Interests

  • Water Policy and Management
  • Environmental Economics and Policy
  • Institutional Economics