Carol Shennan
  • Pronouns she, her, her, hers, herself
  • Title
    • Professor Emerita
  • Division Social Sciences Division
  • Department
    • Environmental Studies Department
  • Phone
    831-345-7594 (cell)
  • Email
  • Website
  • Office Location
    • Nat Sci 2 Main Building, 439
  • Office Hours Contact via email
  • Mail Stop Environmental Studies
  • Mailing Address
    • 1156 High Street
    • Santa Cruz CA 95064
  • Faculty Areas of Expertise Agroecology and Agriculture, International Development
  • Courses ENVS 130A/L Introduction to Agroecology, ENVS 166 Agroecosystems and Watershed Management, ENVS 171 Special Topics: Introduction to Organic Agriculture, ENVS 196 Food production and livelihoods in Sub Saharan Africa, ENVS 196 Advanced Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture, ENVS 230 Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture, ENVS 201B Key words and concepts

Summary of Expertise

In my research group we focus on interdisciplinary studies of agro-ecosystems in both coastal California and overseas with a goal of improving the sustainability of current agricultural production systems. To this end our research includes studies of fertility management and nutrient cycling, organic agriculture, ecological approaches to management of pests and diseases, biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes; international agriculture development and resource management primarily in sub-Saharan Africa. In our work we use a combination of on-farm, experimental, landscape and participatory research approaches, with an emphasis on involving farmers in the research process and on extending research findings to a range of audiences.

Biography, Education and Training

Ph.D. Botany,University of Cambridge, U.K.

B.A. (Highest Honours) Botany, University of Cambridge, U.K.

Honors, Awards and Grants

  • 2021-2023  USDA-NIFA Methyl Bromide Transition Program:  Developing Suppressive Crop Rotations as a Non-Fumigant Soilborne    Disease Management Strategy for Strawberries $411,395

  • 2019-2021 USAID Tekki Jigeen. Evaluating ICT-enabled Business Development Services for Women in Senegal. Women Connect. subcontract from Concern Universal  $134,000. 
  • 2017-2020 USDA-SCRI Integrating anaerobic soil disinfestation, crop rotation and variety for disease management in strawberry production. $2.6 million (PI) 
  • 2016-19 USDA NIFA Refining anaerobic soil disinfestation for disease management in strawberry and apple production $497,965 (PI)

  • 2016-19 CDFA Immobilizing mineralized nitrogen from cole crop residues using organic amendments. $252,258 (Co-PI)
  • 2013-18 USAID New Alliance ICT Extension Challenge Fund (Country Focus: Senegal) ($1.7M Co-PI)

  • 2014-19 USDA Areawide  Optimization and implementation of biologically active soil amendments as an alternative to soil fumigation for soilborne disease control in CA strawberries.  $318,218 (Co-PI)

  • 014-2019 USDA Areawide Optimization and implementation of biologically active soil amendments as an alternative to soil fumigation for soil-borne disease control in California strawberry production systems. $318,218

  • 014-16 CA Dept. Pesticide Regulation. Improving efficacy of biologically mediated soilborne disease management in strawberry by use of reduced rate fumigation $298,472

  • 014-15   CA Strawberry Commission. Non-fumigant strategies for soilborne disease control in CA strawberries $70,000

  • 013-15   CA Dept. Pesticide Regulation. Integrated Pesticide Reduction Strategies for Insect and Disease Management in Cole Crops $399,304

  • 013-14 CA Strawberry Commission. Non-fumigant strategies for soilborne disease control in CA strawberries $133,000

  • 012-15 USDA NIFA. Implementing Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation for soilborne disease control in Strawberries and Apple Nurseries. $455,000

  • 011-15 USDA OREI A Collaborative Research and Extension Network for Sustainable Organic Production Systems in Coastal California. $2.608 million

Selected Publications

  • Hewavitharana, S.S.; Klarer, E.; Muramoto, J.; Shennan, C.; Mazzola, M. 2021. Analysis of Environmental Variables and Carbon Input on Soil Microbiome, Metabolome and Disease Control Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 1638.

  • Zavatta, M., Muramoto, J., Mazzola, M. and C. Shennan. 2021.Rotation length, crop rotation, anaerobic soil disinfestation and mustard seed meal affect organic strawberry yield and soil-borne disease incidence in California. Acta Horticulturae DOI:10.17660/ActaHortic.2021.1309.72

  • Zavatta, M., Muramoto, J., Milazzo, E., Koike, S., Klonsky, K., Goodhue, R. and C. Shennan. 2021. Integrating broccoli rotation, mustard meal, and anaerobic soil disinfestation to manage verticillium wilt in strawberry. Crop Protection 146:105659 DOI:10.1016/j.cropro.2021.105659

  • Voss, R.C., Jansen, T., Mané, B.and C. Shennan. 2021. Encouraging technology adoption using ICTs and farm trials in Senegal: Lessons for gender equity and scaled impact. World Development 146(1):105620 DOI:10.1016/j.worlddev.2021.105620

  • Lovell, R.J., Shennan, C. & Thuy, N.N. Sustainable and conventional intensification: how gendered livelihoods influence farming practice adoption in the Vietnamese Mekong River Delta. Environ Dev Sustain (2020).

  • Eldon, J., Dobasin, D., Jobe, B., Saefo’a, C., and Shennan, C. 2020. On-farm trials identify adaptive management options for rainfed agriculture in West Africa. Agricultural Systems. 182:102819

  • Shennan, C., J. Muramoto, G. Baird, M. Zavatta, L. Nobua, B., and Mazzola, M. 2019. Effects of crop rotation, anaerobic soil disinfestation and mustard seed meal on disease severity and organic strawberry production in California. Acta Hortic. 1270. ISHS 2020. DOI 10.17660/ActaHortic.2020.1270.7 

  • Muramoto, J., Shennan, C., Mazzola, M., Wood, T., Miethke, E., Resultay, E., Zavatta, M., and Koike, S.T. 2019 Use of a summer cover crop as a partial carbon source for anaerobic soil disinfestation in coastal California.  Acta Hortic. 1270. ISHS 2020. DOI 10.17660/ActaHortic.2020.1270.4

  • Krupnik, T.J, J.A. Andersson, L. Rusinamhodzi, M. Corbeels, C. Shennan, and B. Gérard. 2019. Does size matter? A critical review of meta-analysis in agronomy. Experimental Agriculture. 59:200-229.

  • Nieto, D., Letourneau, D., Toyama, L., Bryer, J., Slay, C., Muramoto, J., and Shennan, C. 2019. Assessing anaerobic soil disinfestation as a control tactic for Delia radicum (Diptera: Anthomyiidae)) in California Brussels sprouts. Environmental Entomology, 48:633-640.

  • Michuda, A., Goodhue, R.E., Muramoto, J., Shennan, C., Klonsky, K., Baird, G., Zavatta, M., and Toyama, L. 2018. The economic viability of suppressive crop rotations for the control of verticillium wilt in organic strawberry production. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 1-25.

  • Mazzola, M., Muramoto, J. and Shennan, C. 2018. Anaerobic disinfestation induced changes to the soil microbiome, disease incidence and strawberry fruit yields in California field trials.  Applied Soil Ecology 127:74-86

  • Fatemi, M,. K. Rezaei-Moghaddam, M.Wackernagel, C. Shennan. 2018. Sustainability of Environmental Management in Iran: An Ecological Footprint Analysis. Iran Agricultural Research. 37:53-68

  • Shennan, C., T.J. Krupnik. G. Baird, H. Cohen, K. Forbush, R. Lovell, and E. Olimpi. 2017. Organic and Conventional Agriculture: A useful framing? Annual Review Environment and Resources.  42:317–46

  • Shennan, C., Muramoto, J., Baird G., Daugovish, O., Koike, S., Fenimore, S., Bolda M., Rosskoph, E., Butler, D, Kokalis Burrelle, N., Klonsky, K. and Mazzola, M. 2017.  Anaerobic soil disinfestation is a potential alternative to fumigation for control of some soil borne pathogens in strawberry production.  Plant Pathology Doi: 10.1111/ppa.12721

  • Mazzola, M., Hewavitharana, S. S., Strauss, S. L., Shennan, C., and Muramoto, J. 2016. Anaerobic soil disinfestation and Brassica seed meal amendment alter soil biology and system resistance. International Journal of Fruit Science. 1-12 doi:10.1080/15538362.2016.1195310 

  • Muramoto, J., Shennan, C., Zavatta, M., Baird, G., Toyama, L., Mazzola, M. 2016. Effect of Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation and Mustard Seed Meal for Control of Charcoal Rot in California Strawberries. International Journal of Fruit Science. DOI:10.1080/15538362.2016.1199993 

  • Shennan, C., J. Muramoto, G. Baird, M. Zavatta, L. Toyama, A. Gershenson, M. Los Huertos, S. Kortman, K. Klonsky, M. Gaskell, S.T. Koike, R. Smith, and M. Bolda. 2016. CAL-Collaborative Organic Research and Extension Network: on-farm research to improve strawberry/vegetable rotation systems in coastal California. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 1137:283-290 

  • Shennan, C. Muramoto, J, Mazzola, M, Butler, D, Rosskoph, E., Kokalis-Burelle, N. Momma, K, Kobara, Y, Lamers, J.  2014. Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation for Soil Borne Disease Control in Strawberry and Vegetable Systems: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.  Acta Hort. (ISHS) 1044:165-175

  • Tadesse, G., Zavaleta, E. and Shennan, C.  2014. Coffee landscapes as refugia for native woody biodiversity as forest loss continues in southwest Ethiopia. Biological Conservation 69:384–391

  • Muramoto, J., Gliessman, S.R., Koike, S., Shennan, C., Klonsky. K., and Swezey, S.L. 2014. Integrated biological and cultural practices can reduce crop rotation period of organic strawberries.  Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 38:603-631

  • Krupnik, T.J.,. Rodenburg, J., Haden, V.R., Mbaye, D., and Shennan, C.  2013. Genotypic trade-offs between water productivity and weed competition under the System of Rice Intensification in the Sahel. Agricultural Water Management 115:156-166.

  •  Shennan, C. and Sirrine, D. 2012 Maize legume relay intercrops in Malawi: meeting short and long term sustainability goals. Adv. in Agroecology. Microbial Ecology in Sustainable Agroecosystems. Ed. T.E Cheeke, D.C. Coleman and D.H. Wall. CRC Press

  • Samberg, L. Shennan, C. and Zavaleta, E.  2012 Agricultural biodiversity in a changing landscape: farmer seed exchange and crop diversity.  Human Ecology   41:477-485

  • Krupnik, T.J., Shennan, C., Mbaye, D. and Rodenburg, J.  2012. Water and nutrient use efficiency under conventional management and a water saving practice in the Sahel:multi-season effects of chemical fertilizer and straw applications. Field Crops Res. 130:155-167

  • Samberg, L. Shennan, C. and Zavaleta, E. 2010. Interacting human and environmental forces structure crop diversity in an Ethiopian highland agroecosystem. Professional Geographer 62:395-408

  • Pisani Gareau, T., Letourneau D.K. and C. Shennan. 2013. Relative densities of natural enemy and pest insects within California hedgerows. Environmental Entomology. 42(4):688-702

  • Muramoto, J., Gliessman, S.R., Shennan, C. et al. 2012. The Organic Research Network Project on the Central Coast of California Acta Horticulturae

  • Reganold, J.P., D. Jackson-Smith, S.S. Batie, R.R. Harwood, J.L. Kornegay, D. Bucks, C.B. Flora, J.C. Hanson, W.A. Jury, D. Meyer, A. Schumacher, Jr., H. Sehmsdorf, C. Shennan, L.A. Thrupp, and P. Willis. 2011. Transforming U.S. agriculture. Science 332:670-671

  • Shennan, C. 2008. Biotic Interactions, Ecological Knowledge and Agriculture. Phil. Trans. Royal Society B. 363: 717-729

  • Krupnik, T.J., Shennan, C., Settle, W.H., Demont, M Ndiayec, A.B., and Rodenburg, J. 2012 Improving irrigated rice production in the Senegal River Valley through on-farm experiential learning and innovation. Agricultural Systems 109:101-112

  • Muramoto, J., Smith, R., Shennan, C, Klonsky, K.M., Leap, J., Silva Ruiz, M and Gliessman S. R. 2011. Nitrogen Contribution of Legume/Cereal Mix Winter Cover Crops and Organic Fertilizers to an Organic Broccoli Crop. Hortscience 46:1154-1162

Selected Recordings

Colaborative Organic Research and Extension Network project video

 Soilborne disease management with Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation video

 Design and management of organic strawberry vegetable production systems webinar


Teaching Interests

            Agroecology & Sustainable Agriculture

            Participatory Research

            Gender and Environment

            Key words and concepts in Environmental Studies

            Cropping Systems of the World

            Ecology and Society

            Intro to Agroecology

            Agroecology laboratory

            Agroecosystems and watershed management

Food production, soil management, and livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa